SOME PROBLEMS OF LEARNING 4 LANGUAGE SKILLS
May 28, 2013 Leave a comment
In here, I want to share the other article which discuss about some problems of learning langauge skills. My opinion will support by some experts states. So, please read carefully, because it is very important for you all.
Some problems of learning in 4 language skills especially in speaking have become problems in EFL countries. The difficulties in learning speaking skills may because lack of native speakers in learning process, the emphasis on formal exam driven language courses in EFL countries, and the students anxiety that impacts speaking skills. As foreign language, English is not use in daily life communication and the students is lack of exposure tao native speakers indeed English has different pronunciation in different words. So, it can make students have reluctance to express their ideas orally in English. Another reasons why speaking skill in learning English become problems is because students’ low motivation, shyness, anxiety of students to speak English, low social or cultural support for students’ speaking skill.
The literature review
Speaking is so much part of daily life that we take it for granted Thorndike (2001). For most people, the ability to speak a language is synonymous with knowing that language since speech is the most basic means of human communication (Lazaraton in Celce-Murcia, 2001). The basic assumption in any oral interaction is that the speaker wants to communicate ideas, feelings, attitudes, and information to hear or wants to employ speech that relates to the situation (Celce-Murcia, 2000). It is active of language to express meanings. Therefore, the other people can make sense of them (Cameron, 2003). In addition, Pinter (2006) states that speaking practice can also mean communicate with others in situations where spontaneous contributions are required.
In order to support speaking skill of the students, Brown and Nation (http://www.jalt-publications.org/tlt/files/97/jan/speaking.html) say that in speaking class there must be some attention to formal aspects of speaking such as pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and the appropriate use of the spoken language. Beside that, opportunity and encouragement for learners to produce meaningful spoken messages where the messages have real communicative goals is one of formal aspects that must be occur at the class. The last aspect is opportunity for the learners to gain truly fluent use of what is already known.
Students’ problems in speaking class
The biggest problem in learning speaking class is lack of motivation. Based on Nunan (1993) in Celce-Murcia (2001) on the survey of EFL teachers is students have lack motivation to speak (a cultural issue for some where speaking in class is prohibited except when called on) and the use of the first language. The reluctant to speak is also one of the reasons why students shy to speaking English.
Cultural factors, linguistics factors, and psychological/affective factors are some factors that make students reluctant to speak English (Joyce in Nunan, 1999). Beside that, learners’ cultural and linguistic background is some factors that also cause students reluctant to speak (Schawrtz , 2005). There are five principles that make students reluctant to speak in front of the class. First is students’ perceived low proficiency in English. It can may because the lack motivation to study English and their environment that does not support their learning process. Second is students’ fear of mistakes and derision. Most of students feel scary when they are wrong in pronounced some words. They feel embrace when they are wrong in pronounced some words they will get derision from others friends. The last is teachers’ intolerance of silence. Some teachers’ believe that the good process in learning is silence in the class but teachers’ are also have to appreciate students in discussing the materials. I think teachers’ have to give little times for students’ in discuss and share their ideas with their friends. The next reason is uneven allocation of turns. Some teachers’ more like to give return to speak in front of class to the clever student. Whereas, a good teacher is give same allocation of turns to give them more change in speaking. The last reason principal is incomprehensible input. It may because they are lack in vocabulary. So, when teacher give them new material they have trouble to comprehend it.
There are also problems that lead learners’ oral of students’ failure. First is speech anxiety or fear of oral presentation. Anxiety is associated with feelings uneasiness, self-doubt, apprehension or worry (Brown in Gebhard, 1996). Spolsky (1989) says that anxiety is most often focused on listening and speaking with difficulty in speaking in class being the most common complaint of anxious students. Mitchell (2004) said that students’ anxious is less willing to speak in class.
According to Gebhard (1996), it can be caused by several factors such as inability to pronounce strange sounds and words, not knowing the meaning of words or sentences, inability to understand and answer questions, reputation of the language class as a place for failure, peer criticism, not knowing or understanding course goals or requirements, testing (especially oral testing), previous unsuccessful language learning attempts and encountering different cultural values and behaviors.
The foreign language anxiety that occur to students may occur by communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation. The communication apprehension is an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with other persons. For example, students’ anxiety in situations like speaking in front of the language class, taking exams in language course, and perceiving other students’ evaluation of them. Foreign language learners usually have difficulty understanding others. Because of the lack of control of oral communication, communication apprehension emerges.
When students are unsure of what they are saying, fear of negative evaluation occurs and they may doubt about their ability to make a proper impression. In a foreign language context, negative evaluation derives mainly from both teachers and their peers because foreign languages require continual evaluation by the teacher and anxious students may also be intensely susceptible to the evaluations of their peers. Students with fear of negative evaluation might adopt the action of avoidance. Students with fear of negative evaluation might “sit passively in the classroom, withdrawing from classroom activities that could otherwise increase their improvement of the language skills. In extreme cases, students may think of cutting class to avoid anxiety situations, causing them to be left behind.” These components are considered to have a deleterious effect on second language acquisition. Besides, they overlap and are closely related to each other.
The problems in learning speaking skills can reduce if students increase their motivation by desire to being success person. The teachers also have to authentic human relationships or personal qualities with their students. Teachers also have to stimulate engagement and enhance students learning. Encourage peer support in the classroom. This method can be conduct by offering them to speak up. So, students have time to discuss with their peers before talking and it give them confidence in speaking English. Change students’ negative beliefs and attitudes towards mistakes. Meaning-focused oral activities (Nation, 2007) can also be used frequently with the goal clearly stated. When students are rewarded for successfully conveying a message, they will gradually change their perceptions about mistakes and language use. The teachers’ tolerance of mistakes also needs to be made clear because there is no point in trying to change students’ attitudes when the teacher still keeps them. The last is teachers have to reflect and solve students’ problems. So, attitude and facilitate are very require on it.